September August RSS Feed. Penyakit Tetralogy Fallot Pengertian Patofisiologi Patofisiologi Anemia Tetralogi fallot merupakan penyakit jantung bawaan yang paling sering ditemukan yang ditandai dengan sianosis sentral akibat adanya pirau kanan ke kiri. Pengertian Tetralogi fallot TF adalah kelainan jantung dengan gangguan sianosis yang ditandai dengan kombinasi 4 hal yang abnormal meliputi defek septum ventrikel, stenosis pulmonal, overriding aorta, dan hipertrofi ventrikel kanan.

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Tombol yang haris diklik terletak di bawah posting ini. Terima kasih. Diterbitkan oleh Yanti Yenny Hermanto Telah diubah "4 tahun yang lalu. After traveling to the lung, large thrombi can lodge at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery or the lobar branches and cause hemodynamic compromise. Smaller thrombi typically travel more distally, occluding smaller vessels in the lung periphery. These are more likely to produce pleuritic chest pain by initiating an inflammatory response adjacent to the parietal pleura.

Most pulmonary emboli are multiple, and the lower lobes are involved more commonly than the upper lobes. Factor V Leiden mutation causing resistance to activated protein C is the most common risk factor.

Primary or acquired deficiencies in protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III are other risk factors. The risk of pulmonary embolism increases with prolonged bed rest or immobilization of a limb in a cast. Immobilization usually because of surgery was the risk factor most commonly found in patients with pulmonary embolism.

Arterial hypoxemia is a frequent, but not universal, finding in patients with acute embolism. Pulmonary infarction is an uncommon consequence because of the bronchial arterial collateral circulation. Hemodynamic consequences Pulmonary embolism reduces the cross-sectional area luas penampang of the pulmonary vascular bed, resulting in an increment kenaikan in pulmonary vascular resistance, which, in turn, increases the right ventricular afterload.

If the afterload is increased severely, right ventricular failure may ensue. Assess lung sounds, noting areas of decreased ventilation and the presence of adventitious sounds. Assess for signs and symptoms of hypoxemia: tachycardia, restlessness, diaphoresis, headache, lethargy, and confusion. Assess for signs or symptoms of pulmonary infarction: cough, hemoptysis, pleuritic pain, consolidation, pleural effusion, bronchial breathing, pleural friction rub, fever.

Monitor vital signs. Assess for changes in orientation and behavior. Monitor arterial blood gases ABGs and note changes. Use pulse oximetry to monitor O2 saturation and pulse rate continuously Assess skin color for development of cyanosis. Use upright, high Fowler's position whenever possible. Pace activities and schedule rest periods to prevent fatigue Encourage deep breathing, using incentive spirometer as indicated.

Administer medications as prescribed. Note skin color and feel temperature of the skin Monitor peripheral pulses. Note the decrease in pulse Check capillary refill. Monitor neurological status. Patients with history of peptic ulcer disease, alcoholism, kidney or liver disease, and the elderly are at greatest risk for bleeding Monitor vital signs.

Increase in heart rate accompanied by low blood pressure or subnormal temperature may signal bleeding. Monitor CBC in female patients who are menstruating. Anticoagulation may cause excessive blood loss during menses. Evaluation Evaluate effectiveness of drug therapy by confirming that the patient goals and expected outcomes have been met.

Sudden onset of dyspnea. Severe anxiety, restlessness, irritability. Cool, moist skin. Tachycardia Orthopnea Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Distended Jugular veins Wheezing Noisy, wet respirations that do not clear with coughing. Cough with Frothy, blood-tinged sputum. Impaired gas exchange related to excess fluid in the lungs. Ineffective tissue perfusion related to decreased cardiac muscle contractility. Anxiety related to sensation of suffocation and fear.

Suction airway as needed to maintain patent airways. Assist patient with ADLs as needed to conserve energy and avoid overexertion. Cor pulmonal dapat bersifat akut akibat emboli paru yang pasif, dapat juga kronis. Penyakit vaskuler paru, emboli paru. Demands on the RV may be intensified by increased blood viscosity due to hypoxia-induced polycythemia.

Rarely, RV failure affects the LV if a dysfunctional septum bulges into the LV, interfering with filling and thus causing diastolic dysfunction. Assess skin color and temperature.

Assess peripheral pulses. Assess fluid balance and weight gain. Assess heart sounds, noting gallops, S3, S4. S3 denotes reduced left ventricular ejection and is a classic sign of left ventricular failure. Assess lung sounds. Determine any occurrence of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea PND or orthopnea. Monitor continuous ECG as appropriate. Assess response to increased activity. Assess urine output. Assess for chest pain. Maintain optimal fluid balance.

Maintain hemodynamic parameters at prescribed levels. Administer humidified oxygen as ordered. Maintain physical and emotional rest, as in the following: o Restrict activity. This reduces oxygen demands. Emotional stress increases cardiac demands. This allows rest periods.

The patient is admitted for dyspnea. You place the patient on 2L nasal cannula. The patient states she does not wear any oxygen at home. Focuses on. Presentasi serupa. Upload Masuk. Presentasi saya Profil Tanggapan Keluar. Otorisasi melalui jaringan sosial: Pendaftaran Lupakan kata sandi? Upload presentasi. Batalkan Download. Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu. Salin ke Clipboard. Hendrik SB,drg. Farida A. Soetedjo, Sp. P Bag. Tentang proyek SlidePlayer Syarat penggunaan. Tanggapan Pengaturan dan alat privasi Tanggapan.

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Patofisiologi TOF

Tetralogy of Fallot atau TOF adalah gangguan pada bayi yang disebabkan oleh kombinasi empat saat lahir. TOF memengaruhi struktur jantung, sehingga menyebabkan darah yang dipompa jantung ke seluruh tubuh tidak mengandung cukup oksigen. TOF termasuk kondisi langka, terjadi pada 1 dari kelahiran, dan baru terdeteksi setelah bayi lahir. Oksigen yang dihirup melalui proses pernapasan akan terlarut ke dalam darah di dalam pembuluh darah vena paru-paru. Darah yang telah diperkaya oksigen tersebut akan masuk ke serambi atrium kiri jantung, lalu diteruskan ke bilik ventrikel kiri melalui katup yang dinamakan katup mitral. Setelah ventrikel kiri penuh oleh darah, katup mitral akan menutup untuk mencegah darah kembali ke atrium kiri. Saat ventrikel kiri berkontraksi, darah yang telah diperkaya oksigen tadi akan dialirkan ke seluruh tubuh melalui katup aorta dan pembuluh darah aorta sendiri.



Patofisiologi TOF Bila pada bayi dapat kita jumpai asianosis itu dapat disebabkan aliran ventrikel left to-right shunt sehingga volume darah di ventrikel kanan meningkat dan akhirnya menyebabkan kontraksi yang meningkat pada ventrikel kanan ventrikel kanan hipertropi. Figure 1 Physiology of the tetralogy of Fallot. Circled numbers represent oxygen saturation values. Atrial mixed venous oxygen saturation is decreased because of the systemic hypoxemia. Two liters flows through the right ventricular outflow tract into the lungs, whereas 1 L shunts right to left through the ventricular septal defect VSD into the ascending aorta. Thus, pulmonary blood flow is two thirds normal Qp : Qs [pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio] of 0.


Askep Tetralogi Of Fallot ~ Amrie ~

Notes: 1 This pathway is a general guideline and variations can occur based on professional judgment. Soetedjo Bag. Ilmu Penyakit Dalam FK. Looking for askep anemia pada anak pdf printer. Will be grateful for any.


Kami berharap bahwa Anda menikmati presentasi ini. Untuk men-download , silahkan rekomendasi presentasi ini kepada teman-teman Anda dalam jaringan sosial. Tombol yang haris diklik terletak di bawah posting ini. Terima kasih. Diterbitkan oleh Yanti Yenny Hermanto Telah diubah "4 tahun yang lalu.

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