Untuk itu, mahasiswa perlu diberi peluang dan tantangan tersistematis guna meningkatkan mutu kreativitas, mentalitas dan perilakunya. Di samping itu, aspek kerjasama dan komunikasi yang bermanfaat antar intelektual muda, yang selama ini menjadi kendala lulusan perguruan tinggi, juga perlu dibudayakan. Melalui PIMNAS, karya-karya kreatif mahasiswa dipertemukan, dibahas sesama mahasiswa dan juga juri, sekaligus disampaikan kepada masyarakat. Pelaksanaan PIMNAS dimaksudkan untuk: meningkatkan wawasan dan kemampuan akademik mahasiswa mengembangkan komunikasi ilmiah mahasiswa memacu dan membudayakan kreativitas dan penalaran mahasiswa dalam IPTEK dan seni Beberapa tujuan yang ingin dicapai dari pelaksanaan PIMNAS: Menjadi media dan sarana komunikasi mahasiswa seluruh Indonesia Membuka peluang bagi pengembangan potensi mahasiswa dalam kegiatan ilmiah Mempertajam wawasan, mahasiswa dalam pengembangan IPTEK dan seni Meningkatkan posisi tawar mahasiswa di dunia kerja atau masyarakat Memberi umpan balik terhadap proses belajar mengajar di PT Meningkatkan ketrampilan mahasiswa dalam menyampaikan karya intelektualnya Mempererat kerjasama akademik Mempererat tali persaudaraan sebangsa dalam bingkai NKRI. Untuk mengikutinya, mahasiswa harus membuat sebuah proposal. Proposal dibuat per-tim orang dari universitas yang sama dan disarankan dari angkatan yang berbeda.
|Genre:||Health and Food|
|Published (Last):||14 October 2013|
|PDF File Size:||2.21 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||10.77 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Untuk itu, mahasiswa perlu diberi peluang dan tantangan tersistematis guna meningkatkan mutu kreativitas, mentalitas dan perilakunya. Di samping itu, aspek kerjasama dan komunikasi yang bermanfaat antar intelektual muda, yang selama ini menjadi kendala lulusan perguruan tinggi, juga perlu dibudayakan. Melalui PIMNAS, karya-karya kreatif mahasiswa dipertemukan, dibahas sesama mahasiswa dan juga juri, sekaligus disampaikan kepada masyarakat. Pelaksanaan PIMNAS dimaksudkan untuk: meningkatkan wawasan dan kemampuan akademik mahasiswa mengembangkan komunikasi ilmiah mahasiswa memacu dan membudayakan kreativitas dan penalaran mahasiswa dalam IPTEK dan seni Beberapa tujuan yang ingin dicapai dari pelaksanaan PIMNAS: Menjadi media dan sarana komunikasi mahasiswa seluruh Indonesia Membuka peluang bagi pengembangan potensi mahasiswa dalam kegiatan ilmiah Mempertajam wawasan, mahasiswa dalam pengembangan IPTEK dan seni Meningkatkan posisi tawar mahasiswa di dunia kerja atau masyarakat Memberi umpan balik terhadap proses belajar mengajar di PT Meningkatkan ketrampilan mahasiswa dalam menyampaikan karya intelektualnya Mempererat kerjasama akademik Mempererat tali persaudaraan sebangsa dalam bingkai NKRI.
Untuk mengikutinya, mahasiswa harus membuat sebuah proposal. Proposal dibuat per-tim orang dari universitas yang sama dan disarankan dari angkatan yang berbeda. Penelitian itu bisa berbasis ilmu sosial maupun sains. Nah, untuk PKM ini, peserta harus bekerja sama dengan mitra usaha. Mitra usaha yang dimaksud adalah masyarakat pengelola industri yang akan dibantu. Ia berorientasi pada profit dari komoditi komersial yang ditawarkan peserta. Bisa berupa barang atau jasa.
PKM Pengabdian Masyarakat PKM-M Untuk yang satu ini, ia berfokus pada program yang membantu masyarakat, misalnya dalam meningkatkan modal sosial mereka seperti memberantas buta huruf, meningkatkan keterampilan kerja, memperkuat sistem kelembagaan masyarakat, teknologi yang membantu peningkatan mutu hidup, dan lain sebagainya.
Intinya, mahasiswa harus bekerja sama dengan masyarakat dalam program ini. Ia dituangkan dalam bentuk artikel yang berisikan ide tentang solusi cerdas dan realistis dari persoalan serta isu-isu hangat dalam masyarakat. PKM Artikel Ilmiah PKM-AI Program ini adalah penulisan artikel ilmiah yang bersumber pada kegiatan mahasiswa di bidang pendidikan, penelitian, maupun pengabdian masyarakat yang telah dilaksanakan sebelumnya secara mandiri.
Contohnya magang, KKN, dan studi kasus, dan lain-lain. Ia hanya melalui seleksi di DIKTI dan yang lolos akan dipublikasikan sebagai jurnal ilmiah terakreditasi. Agriculture has changed dramatically, especially since the end of World War II. Food and fiber productivity soared due to new technologies, mechanization, increased chemical use, specialization and government policies that favored maximizing production. These changes allowed fewer farmers with reduced labor demands to produce the majority of the food and fiber in the U.
Although these changes have had many positive effects and reduced many risks in farming, there have also been significant costs.
Prominent among these are topsoil depletion, groundwater contamination, the decline of family farms, continued neglect of the living and working conditions for farm laborers, increasing costs of production, and the disintegration of economic and social conditions in rural communities. A growing movement has emerged during the past two decades to question the role of the agricultural establishment in promoting practices that contribute to these social problems.
Today this movement for sustainable agriculture is garnering increasing support and acceptance within mainstream agriculture. Not only does sustainable agriculture address many environmental and social concerns, but it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, laborers, consumers, policymakers and many others in the entire food system.
This paper is an effort to identify the ideas, practices and policies that constitute our concept of sustainable agriculture. We do so for two reasons: 1 to clarify the research agenda and priorities of our program, and 2 to suggest to others practical steps that may be appropriate for them in moving toward sustainable agriculture.
Because the concept of sustainable agriculture is still evolving, we intend the paper not as a definitive or final statement, but as an invitation to continue the dialogue. Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals—environmental health, economic profitability, and social and economic equity.
A variety of philosophies, policies and practices have contributed to these goals. People in many different capacities, from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future.
Stewardship of land and natural resources involves maintaining or enhancing this vital resource base for the long term. A systems perspective is essential to understanding sustainability. The system is envisioned in its broadest sense, from the individual farm, to the local ecosystem, and to communities affected by this farming system both locally and globally.
An emphasis on the system allows a larger and more thorough view of the consequences of farming practices on both human communities and the environment. A systems approach gives us the tools to explore the interconnections between farming and other aspects of our environment. A systems approach also implies interdisciplinary efforts in research and education. This requires not only the input of researchers from various disciplines, but also farmers, farmworkers, consumers, policymakers and others.
Making the transition to sustainable agriculture is a process. For farmers, the transition to sustainable agriculture normally requires a series of small, realistic steps. Family economics and personal goals influence how fast or how far participants can go in the transition. Finally, it is important to point out that reaching toward the goal of sustainable agriculture is the responsibility of all participants in the system , including farmers, laborers, policymakers, researchers, retailers, and consumers.
Each group has its own part to play, its own unique contribution to make to strengthen the sustainable agriculture community. The remainder of this document considers specific strategies for realizing these broad themes or goals. The strategies are grouped according to three separate though related areas of concern: Farming and Natural Resources, Plant and Animal Production Practices, and the Economic, Social and Political Context.
They represent a range of potential ideas for individuals committed to interpreting the vision of sustainable agriculture within their own circumstances. When the production of food and fiber degrades the natural resource base, the ability of future generations to produce and flourish decreases.
The decline of ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean region, Pre-Columbian southwest U. Water is the principal resource that has helped agriculture and society to prosper, and it has been a major limiting factor when mismanaged.
Water supply and use. In California, an extensive water storage and transfer system has been established which has allowed crop production to expand to very arid regions. In drought years, limited surface water supplies have prompted overdraft of groundwater and consequent intrusion of salt water, or permanent collapse of aquifers. Periodic droughts, some lasting up to 50 years, have occurred in California.
Water quality. The most important issues related to water quality involve salinization and contamination of ground and surface waters by pesticides, nitrates and selenium. Tile drainage can remove the water and salts, but the disposal of the salts and other contaminants may negatively affect the environment depending upon where they are deposited.
Temporary solutions include the use of salt-tolerant crops, low-volume irrigation, and various management techniques to minimize the effects of salts on crops. In the long-term, some farmland may need to be removed from production or converted to other uses. Other uses include conversion of row crop land to production of drought-tolerant forages, the restoration of wildlife habitat or the use of agroforestry to minimize the impacts of salinity and high water tables.
Pesticide and nitrate contamination of water can be reduced using many of the practices discussed later in the Plant Production Practices and Animal Production Practices sections. Another way in which agriculture affects water resources is through the destruction of riparian habitats within watersheds. The conversion of wild habitat to agricultural land reduces fish and wildlife through erosion and sedimentation, the effects of pesticides, removal of riparian plants, and the diversion of water.
The plant diversity in and around both riparian and agricultural areas should be maintained in order to support a diversity of wildlife.
This diversity will enhance natural ecosystems and could aid in agricultural pest management. Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on non-renewable energy sources, especially petroleum. The continued use of these energy sources cannot be sustained indefinitely, yet to abruptly abandon our reliance on them would be economically catastrophic.
However, a sudden cutoff in energy supply would be equally disruptive. In sustainable agricultural systems, there is reduced reliance on non-renewable energy sources and a substitution of renewable sources or labor to the extent that is economically feasible. Many agricultural activities affect air quality. These include smoke from agricultural burning; dust from tillage, traffic and harvest; pesticide drift from spraying; and nitrous oxide emissions from the use of nitrogen fertilizer.
Options to improve air quality include incorporating crop residue into the soil, using appropriate levels of tillage, and planting wind breaks, cover crops or strips of native perennial grasses to reduce dust. Soil erosion continues to be a serious threat to our continued ability to produce adequate food. Numerous practices have been developed to keep soil in place, which include reducing or eliminating tillage, managing irrigation to reduce runoff, and keeping the soil covered with plants or mulch.
Enhancement of soil quality is discussed in the next section. Sustainable production practices involve a variety of approaches. Despite the site-specific and individual nature of sustainable agriculture, several general principles can be applied to help growers select appropriate management practices:. Selection of site, species and variety. Preventive strategies, adopted early, can reduce inputs and help establish a sustainable production system.
When possible, pest-resistant crops should be selected which are tolerant of existing soil or site conditions. When site selection is an option, factors such as soil type and depth, previous crop history, and location e.
Diversified farms are usually more economically and ecologically resilient. By growing a variety of crops, farmers spread economic risk and are less susceptible to the radical price fluctuations associated with changes in supply and demand. Properly managed, diversity can also buffer a farm in a biological sense.
For example, in annual cropping systems, crop rotation can be used to suppress weeds, pathogens and insect pests. Also, cover crops can have stabilizing effects on the agroecosystem by holding soil and nutrients in place, conserving soil moisture with mowed or standing dead mulches, and by increasing the water infiltration rate and soil water holding capacity. Cover crops in orchards and vineyards can buffer the system against pest infestations by increasing beneficial arthropod populations and can therefore reduce the need for chemical inputs.
Using a variety of cover crops is also important in order to protect against the failure of a particular species to grow and to attract and sustain a wide range of beneficial arthropods. Optimum diversity may be obtained by integrating both crops and livestock in the same farming operation. This was the common practice for centuries until the mids when technology, government policy and economics compelled farms to become more specialized. Mixed crop and livestock operations have several advantages.
First, growing row crops only on more level land and pasture or forages on steeper slopes will reduce soil erosion. Second, pasture and forage crops in rotation enhance soil quality and reduce erosion; livestock manure, in turn, contributes to soil fertility.
Finally, feeding and marketing are flexible in animal production systems. This can help cushion farmers against trade and price fluctuations and, in conjunction with cropping operations, make more efficient use of farm labor.
Siringmakar 11: "Overachievers with PKM, together with the winner of the gold medal PIMNAS"
Posting Komentar. Diusulkan Oleh:. Namun suhu ini belum termasuk di kategorikan ekstrim. Menurut prakirawan SMKG palu , Affan Nugraha, seperti dikutip mercusuar, cuaca panas yang cukup menyengat di palu saat ini karna dalam masa peralihan cuaca, yakni dari musim hujan ke musim kemarau.
Download Contoh PKM KC