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The main elements of the proposed model are based on the socialization that should be directed into three levels namely dissemination, participation and mobilization. In the early stage, most of the scholarly work pertaining to al-dacwah in the Internet emphasized the importance of this medium for al-dacwah and attempted to find the compatibility of this medium with Islam.
However, the proper ways and guidelines to undertake al-dacwah efficiently on the Internet have received little attention from scholars. The review of the available literatures can be seen from three perspectives. Firstly, the availability literatures of al-dacwah in the Internet is only concerned with al-dacwah via website compared to other Internet applications which are more interactive than websites such as blog and social network sites SNS.
Today, the trend of online communication moves to interactive communication especially on SNS such as Facebook and Twitter. Secondly, the available literatures do not differentiate the nature of communication on the Internet between human to human communication and human to computer communication. According to Lee 6 as cited by Stromer-Galley the failure to differentiate between interactivity- as-process and interactivity-as-product only produces confusion and affects the validity of the studies.
Stromer- Galley argues the improper distinction between both types of interactivity leads to invalidity of the study because questions were examined with inappropriate model. Thirdly, the availability literatures do not conceptualise al-dacwah via the Internet from the perspective of personal approach of al-dacwah that matches the concept of human to human communication because of impossibility to address all Internet users at once in a time.
Al-dacwah via the Internet therefore should be designed according to the target group of al-dacwah al- madcu that matches the concept of al-dacwah al-fardiyyah. It suggests a general guideline for activists of al-dacwah to undertake human to human communication that incorporates the element of al-dacwah al-fardiyyah in the Internet.
This term is congruent with four features of online, namely, virtuality, spatiality, disembedding and disembodiment. It contrasts with several terms that might characterize the offline world: real, actual and material. The second is the apparent ability to constitute a place or places that are called cyberspace. It captures the sense of social setting that exists purely within a space of representation and communication. The third is the irrelevance of geographical position in the communication on the Internet.
The fourth is the identity of the person that is separated from the physical presence. These features offer a new platform to address al-dacwah that transcends geographical boundaries made possible via the Internet as a versatile medium of communication. The first concerns the information provided by religions on the Internet and the second concerns activities to attract participation. However, these studies of religion are concerned with the influence of the Internet on the development of religion.
The evolution in the religion is not surprising because those are human made religions that accept such changes and amendments even in the fundamental of the religion. In turn, using such technology in Islam is permissible as long as the fundamentals of Islam remain intact.
Al-Dacwah Al-Fardiyyah: Al-dacwah al-fardiyyah is an approach of al-dacwah through building a close relationship with and showing good examples to a limited number of the target group.
Indeed, establishing a good relationship is an effective method of al-dacwah because the close relationship between al-daci and al-madcu is a useful method of convincing and influencing people. These definitions imply that the personal touch is the central point behind al-dacwah al- fardiyyah. The first, the target group should not more than a person. They posit that the target group can be a person or a small group as long as they share some similar background but the most important part in al-dacwah al-fardiyyah is the formation of a good Muslim that can be built through informal friendship.
Objective Of Al-Dacwah Al-Fardiyyah: Al-dacwah al-fardiyyah is a method by al-dacwah that is undertaken for two main objectives namely the formation of a good Muslim who understands Islam and who does work for Islam. Being a good society is when units of that society are also good.
The former is by approaching al-madcu with the greeting, complimenting, visiting, etc. The latter step is manifested by the former but it emphasises the mutual understanding, caring, loving, helping, etc.
There are two ways of managing al-dacwah al-fardiyyah at this level. The first way is by showing good attitudes to all people, Muslims or non Muslims, in order to win their heart and to portray the good image of Islam.
Muslims have to internalize the Islamic values in their lives in order to illustrate the beauty of Islam. Al- Faruqi d. Therefore, every Muslim has the responsibility of internalizing Islamic values in all aspects of life that this will indirectly convey the messages of Islam.
The second way of managing al-dacwah al-fardiyyah at this level is by undertaking al-dacwah to a specific al-madcu in order to improve his understanding of Islam, to call him to attend the mosque and to mold him to be a good Muslim. The target of al-dacwah here is to a specific person instead of undetermined people. It means that the special attention is given to the specific al-madcu. Al-daci has to be proactive in approaching people instead of waiting for them at Islamic centres or at mosques.
This kind of approach can extend the influences of al-dacwah wider and faster. In fact, the personal approach is perceived to be more acceptable for both al-daci and al-madcu.
According to al-Maqtiri , the works of al-dacwah should be in person because it is an efficient way to approach people who do not attend mosques, or do not listen to Islamic talks, or those who are engaged sins. This approach also allows al-daci to reach public figures with high social status in society.
The second objective of al-dacwah al-fardiyyah is to recruit new activists of Islam and to improve the existing activists of al-dacwah in terms of understanding of and commitment to Islam. Al-dacwah is not only for calling people to attend mosques but more than that, it is for internalizing Islamic values in all spheres of life. Activists of al-dacwah have to socialize with society and moreover they have to lead people in accordance with Islamic teachings. According to Mahmud al-dacwah al-fardiyyah is a way of al-tarbiyyah that is the recruitment of people who can endure and undertake al-dacwah which includes encouraging good deeds and prohibiting the bad.
In other words, a good Muslim has to lead other people to be good. In Islam, all these are part of the duties of all Muslims as Islam treats people as a community and not as individuals. Approaches Of Al-Dacwah Al-Fardiyyah: Al-dacwah al-fardiyyah is the long term mission of al-dacwah that must be undergone the gradual process into some stages to ensure the transformation of al-madcu in its nature.
It is not too difficult to recruit a person who has already committed to Islam but for those who are in deep sin, the transformation takes time. For example, prohibition of liquor takes three steps because alcoholism was rampant at the time of the Prophet. The Islamic scholars put the gradient as a principle in the philosophy of the legislation of Islamic law al-tashric Zaydan, ; Qattan, The gradient is also used by the Prophet that can be found in many traditions.
For example, in a tradition narrated by Abu Hurayrah, a question has been asked to the Prophet three times, but he replies the question for each time with different answers. Different answer for different question is a sign that the Prophet knows the personality of people, thus, he designs the answer according to the nature of people. It can be said that gradient is an essential principle of al-dacwah to assure the process of transformation is going naturally according to the understanding of Islam and commitment to Islam.
Therefore, the capability of al- madcu should be understood earlier before determining the appropriate level because each person has a different background.
The principle of gradient has been found in the approaches of al-dacwah al-fardiyyah outlined by Mashhur. Their working plans are not far remote what Mashhur had outlined except for some small modifications in some stages because all of them are from al-Banna school of al-dacwah. Al-Dib manages to divide approaches of al-dacwah al-fardiyyah to seven stages namely: be loving and brotherhood, stimulating al-iman, explaining the comprehensiveness of Islam, updating with news of Muslims over the world and doing the compulsory work for Islam, guiding how to work for Islam and understanding the reasons of working for Islam as shown in Table 1.
These stages can be classified into three levels. He does not put any name of the level except he outlines the objectives of each level.
The objective of the first level is to have a close relationship with al-madcu and to create physical and spiritual environments for al-madcu to implement Islam. It encompasses the first three stages of approach namely be loved and brotherhood, stimulating al-iman, explaining the comprehensiveness of Islam. The objective of the second level is to get deep understanding of Islam and to implement Islam.
It consists of two levels of approach namely updating with news of Muslims over the world and doing the compulsory work for Islam. The objective of the third level is to work for Islam that comprises two levels of approach namely guiding how to work for Islam and understanding the reasons of working for Islam. It is observed at the first level, the distinction of each level is clear but for the second and third level, the distinction between stages is blurred.
Perhaps in the last two levels, the combination of previous approaches is needed. However, it is observed that al-Dib and Mashhur did not divide the level according to the classification of al-madcu into tacrif, takwin and tanfidh but they only arrange stages of the approaches. According to Mahmud, the classification into tacrif, takwin and tanfidh is not precise because it is hard to generalize the similar objective of al-dacwah to all people.
The approach of each individual is different. For example, the main objective of al-dacwah of those people who are deep in sin is to preserve them from sin and take their hand to understand Islam. As for people who are committed to Islam, the objective is to give a clearer understanding of Islam and to motivate them to undertake al-dacwah. Nevertheless, in order to know the success of the recruitment process, al-daci needs an indicator.
In light of that, in our view, the classification of al-madcu into three, tacrif, takwin and tanfidh, as proposed by Hasan al-Banna, is a good indicator.
The division of al-dacwah al-fardiyyah to seven stages and division of these stages are suitable with the principle of gradient that by considering the background of al-madcu. It is one of the meanings of al-hikmah in al-dacwah that is to communicate with people regarding topics that they are familiar with. Salmon focuses on facilitation of online learning or precisely on the ways moderators conduct an online learning. According to Salmon 28 , the model is based on two main assumptions. Firstly, learning involves more than merely undertaking activities using a computer.
As learning is a lifetime process of transferring knowledge, it requires more than simple interaction especially in online learning. The first stage is the access and motivation. This is an essential stage of the online learning process because it is a prerequisite for conference participation.
The second stage is called the participation where participants establish interaction with other people or peers in the study. The objective of this stage is to build effective groups of study and to set the stage for learning.
The third stage is called an information exchange where the interaction occurs in discussing subject matters that are relevant to the course until the level of cooperation. The objective of this group is to set up practice in online cooperation and to set up the use of information for learning. The fourth stage is knowledge construction where the course-related group discussions occur and the interaction becomes more collaborative.