DECRETO 4476 DE 2007 PDF

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Furthermore, role models are found to have a greater influence over the. Therefore, the fecundity values were estimated from a sample of and individuals in Xochicalco and Tembembe, respectively. This may not be the case for other Agave populations, though. Journal of Ecology As any other modeling tool, population projection matrices have limitations. This study was carried out at two different sites in the Mexican state of Morelos, near Cuernavaca city ca.

These were the variations in the fecundity entries as discussed belowwhich were in turn determined by a higher seed germination and seedling establishment probability in Tembembe compared to Xochicalco, probably due to the higher altitude and thus lower temperatures that prevail at Tembembe. The contribution matrices for each site were calculated as follows Pulido et al. We followed the fate of individuals in each category and estimated the probability of remaining in the same category, moving to a different one by growing to a larger size category, or regressing to a smaller size category due to a reduction in plant diameter after the loss of leaves, for instanceor dying, from the proportion of individuals following each fate from May to May Comparative demographic analysis of three Neobuxbaumia species Cactaceae with differing degree of rarity.

Ecology Demographic analysis of Agave angustifolia Agavaceae with an emphasis on ecological restoration. How do plant ecologists use matrix population models?

In Tembembe, the distribution of A. En lo Ancestral hay Futuro: A total of A. The most common shrub species are Lantana hispida and Acacia farnesiana. Tembembein which the three main decreti process are represented.

Chapman and Hall, New York. Additionally, other analyses elasticity, LTRE, and numerical simulations were carried out to identify the most critical demographic processes and life-cycle stages in the population, and to theoretically test the potential results of different management strategies, all aimed to inform future restoration programs.

Seeds are black, flat, and triangular in shape, ca. The number of seeds per capsule was significantly higher in Xochicalco than in Tembembe Xochicalco: These were used to project the numerical behavior of the populations through time and calculate the finite population growth rate to which they would converge. Large-scale ecological restoration of degraded tropical forest lands: The purpose of the numerical simulations was to theoretically evaluate the effect of different management scenarios on the Tembembe population.

At the end of Mayjust before the onset of the rainy season, we carried out a germination experiment to evaluate the probability of germination under natural conditions. The entries of the elasticity matrices were obtained as described in de Kroon et al. This is a highly degraded site given its long history of cattle ranching and is currently being subjected to ecological restoration.

Some of these studies have addressed the effect of disturbance on population dynamics, and have noted that they tend to be either negative or nil.

Our numerical simulations suggest that the introduction of Agave angustifolia plants would be a successful strategy to boost population growth rate at Tembembe. This site is currently a pastureland used for cattle fe its main ce use at least for the last ca. Materials and methods Study species. All individuals — from all size categories — found in the expanded area were quantified.

The reproductive value ddcreto category 6 represented almost half the total reproductive value, which was expected given the semelparity of individual rosettes, and was higher in Tembembe than in Xochicalco. Implications for ecological restoration. In this section we describe statistical analyses performed on the data obtained from the seed germination and seedling establishment experiments. The other important component of fecundity was seed production, which was quite low duringgiven that it was not a mast-seeding year.

We also wanted to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that affect these processes in natural conditions i. Note the differences in the scale of the y axis between plots.

Agave angustifolia Agavaceae produces large rosettes deecreto green-grayish narrow leaves cm longwhich are stiffly and erect and show moderately spaced lateral spines and a terminal dark spine.

Deforestation of seasonally dry tropical forest: January 24, ; Accepted: Thus, for this section of the study we needed to expand our sampled area to include a higher number of reproductive plants and estimate reproductive probabilities per category. Thus, matrix analysis offers a description of the potential behavior of the studied population if the present demographic conditions were to remain constant over time i.

Cactaceae in a lava-field in central Mexico. Agaves of continental North America. In addition, we also counted the number of offshoots daughter rosettes emerging from each adult rosette.

In our study sites, there is marked inter-annual variation in precipitation and temperature, which surely affects the demographical behavior of Agave angustifolia between years. The results of these analyses throw light into the population processes that are relevant for restoration and that would increase the likelihood of success of future restoration programs based on this species.

This elasticity pattern contrasts with the results of most long-lived plants of arid and semi-arid environments i. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website.

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DECRETO 4476 DE 2007 PDF

Furthermore, role models are found to have a greater influence over the. Seeds are black, flat, and triangular in shape, ca. When adding up the elasticity values corresponding to the same demographic processes, we observed a similar pattern in both sites: The other dots are different agave and cacti populations two populations of Agave marmorata ; two populations of Mammillaria crucigera ; M. Such behavior has also been observed in Agave marmorataand the cacti Neobuxbaumia macrocephalaN. Agave angustifolia has a relatively widespread geographic distribution, spanning from northern Mexico to southern Costa Rica.

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Furthermore, role models are found to have a greater influence over the. Therefore, the fecundity values were estimated from a sample of and individuals in Xochicalco and Tembembe, respectively. This may not be the case for other Agave populations, though. Journal of Ecology As any other modeling tool, population projection matrices have limitations.

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