DILBILIME GIRI PDF

Abstract The quantitative increase in recent years of research into semiotics , among other methods of reading works of art, is notable. Since semiotics is the act of reading as based on a meta-language that is constructed and grounded in logic, understanding the methods applied by the field requires time and experience. In addition, the application of models that differ in relation to each other under different schools of thought and under different names makes its yet more difficult to comprehend the field of semiotics. Despite the different models that are available, approaches display certain commonalities as they are born of the same foundations and objectives. This study will aim to pinpoint the common aspects of the intellectual foundations, methods, objectives and research limitations of the different schools of thought and the models that are involved in the study of semiotics.

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Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy. To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters.

The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature.

These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation.

Modulating phonemic fluency performance in healthy subjects with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left or right lateral frontal cortex. A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS , can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks.

For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls HC tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex PFC improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks. To account for possible practice effects, an additional 22 HCs were tested on only the phonemic fluency task across two sessions with no stimulation.

We found that rTMS-inhibition over the left lateral frontal cortex significantly worsened phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. In contrast, rTMS-inhibition over the right lateral frontal cortex significantly improved phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. These results were not accounted for practice effects. We speculated that rTMS over the right lateral frontal cortex may induce plastic neural changes to the left lateral frontal cortex by suppressing interhemispheric inhibitory interactions.

This resulted in an increased excitability disinhibition of the contralateral unstimulated left lateral frontal cortex, consequently enhancing phonemic fluency performance. Conversely, application of rTMS over the left lateral frontal cortex may induce a temporary, virtual lesion, with effects similar to those reported in left frontal.

The absoluteness of semantic processing: lessons from the analysis of temporal clusters in phonemic verbal fluency. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available For word production, we may consciously pursue semantic or phonological search strategies, but it is uncertain whether we can retrieve the different aspects of lexical information independently from each other.

We therefore studied the spread of semantic information into words produced under exclusively phonemic task demands. Based on curve fittings for the time courses of word production, output spurts temporal clusters considered to reflect rapid lexical retrieval based on automatic activation spread, were identified.

Semantic and phonemic word relatedness within versus between these clusters was assessed by respective scores 0 meaning no relation, 4 maximum relation. Subjects produced Both phonemically and semantically words were more related within clusters than between clusters phon: 0. The results indicate that semantic information spread occurs, even if the consciously pursued word search strategy is purely phonological.

This, together with the negative correlation between semantic relatedness and verbal output suits the idea of a semantic default mode of lexical search, acting against rapid task performance in the given scenario of phonemic verbal fluency. The simultaneity of enhanced semantic and phonemic word relatedness within the same temporal cluster boundaries suggests an interaction between content and sound-related information whenever a new semantic field has been opened.

Phonemic verbal fluency and severity of anxiety disorders in young children. Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Previous studies have implicated impaired verbal fluency as being associated with anxiety disorders in adolescents. Objectives: To replicate and extend previously reported evidence by investigating whether performance in phonemic verbal fluency tasks is related to severity of anxiety symptoms in young children with anxiety disorders.

We also aim to investigate whether putative associations are independent from co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD symptoms. Methods: Sixty children years old with primary diagnoses of anxiety disorders participated in this study. Severity of symptoms was measured using clinician-based, parent-rated and self-rated validated scales. Results: There was a significant association between the number of clusters and anxiety scores. Further analysis revealed associations were independent from co-occurring ADHD symptoms.

Conclusion: We replicate and extend previous findings showing that verbal fluency is consistently associated with severity in anxiety disorders in children. Further studies should explore the potential effect of cognitive training on symptoms of anxiety disorders.

Background: The ability to generate words that follow certain constraints, or verbal fluency , is a sensitive indicator of neurocognitive impairment, and is impacted by a variety of variables.

Aims: To investigate the effect of post-stroke aphasia, elicitation category and linguistic variables on verbal fluency performance. Verbal fluency tasks are used extensively in clinical settings because of their sensitivity to a wide variety of disorders, including cognitive decline and dementia, and their usefulness in differential diagnoses. However, the effects of bilingualism on neuropsychological assessment, and verbal fluency in particular, are currently not completely….

This article introduces the menu task , which can be used to elicit infrequent sounds such as loan phonemes that only occur in a restricted set of words. The menu task is similar to the well-known map task and involves the interaction of two participants to create a menu on the basis of a list of. Full Text Available Background: Verbal fluency is a measure of cognitive flexibility and word search strategies that is widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function.

Despite the wealth of research on identifying and characterizing distinct aspects of verbal fluency , the anatomic and functional substrates of retrieval-related search and post-retrieval control processes still have not been fully elucidated. Results: Common localized activations across P, C, and S tasks occurred in the bilateral superior and left inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area SMA, and left insula.

Differential task activations were centered in the occipital, temporal and parietal regions as well as the thalamus and cerebellum. The context-based fluency task , i. P and C tasks elicited activation in limited pathways mainly within the left frontal regions. ICA and PPI results of the S task suggested that brain regions distributed across both hemispheres, extending beyond classical language areas, are recruited for lexical-semantic access and retrieval during sentence completion.

Conclusion: Study results support the hypothesis of overlapping, as well as distinct, neural networks for covert word generation when. Activations of human auditory cortex to phonemic and nonphonemic vowels during discrimination and memory tasks.

We used fMRI to investigate activations within human auditory cortex AC to vowels during vowel discrimination, vowel categorical n-back memory, and visual tasks. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that the vowel discrimination task would be associated with increased activations in the anterior superior temporal gyrus STG , while the vowel memory task would enhance activations in the posterior STG and inferior parietal lobule IPL.

In particular, we tested the hypothesis that activations in the IPL during vowel memory tasks are associated with categorical processing. Namely, activations due to categorical processing should be higher during tasks performed on nonphonemic hard to categorize than on phonemic easy to categorize vowels.

As expected, we found distinct activation patterns during vowel discrimination and vowel memory tasks. Further, these task -dependent activations were different during tasks performed on phonemic or nonphonemic vowels. However, activations in the IPL associated with the vowel memory task were not stronger during nonphonemic than phonemic vowel blocks. Together these results demonstrate that activations in human AC to vowels depend on both the requirements of the behavioral task and the phonemic status of the vowels.

All rights reserved. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation. In old individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and nonmusician individuals for two periods of life late adulthood and old age.

Long-term memory, auditory verbal short-term memory, processing speed, nonverbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory verbal short-term memory showed significant better performances for musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related difference.

For verbal fluencies , musician individuals scored higher and displayed different age effects compared with controls. In study 2, we revealed that the life period at training onset childhood versus adulthood was associated with phonemic , but not semantic fluency performances musicians who had started practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency compared with nonmusicians.

These patterns of results are discussed by confronting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice with non-causal explanation. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation. Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality.

In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods middle and late adulthood.

Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences.

For verbal fluencies , musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset childhood vs. Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation.

The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter phonemic fluency is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category semantic fluency is typically unimpaired.

However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties.

Phonemic , semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency , but not semantic or design fluency.

At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency , while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items.

Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation.

Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks , may resolve this issue. Full Text Available AbstractTo assess phonological awareness - a decisive skill for learning to read and write - it is necessary to provide evidence about an instrument construct to present trustworthy parameters for both empirical research and the development of educational intervention and rehabilitation programs.

In Brazil, at this moment, there are no studies regarding the internal structure for tests of phonological awareness. This article shows the factorial validity of a test of phonological awareness composed by three sub-tests: two tasks of subtraction of initial phoneme and one of phonemic segmentation.

Results indicated a well-adjusted model, with items of intermediate difficulty and high factor loadings; thus, this corroboratedthe internal structure and well-designed theoretical conception.

Purpose: Speaking, which naturally occurs in different modes or " tasks " such as conversation and repetition, relies on intact basal ganglia nuclei.

Recent studies suggest that voice and fluency parameters are differentially affected by speech task. In this study, the authors examine the effects of subcortical functionality on voice and fluency ,…. Achieving fluency in important mathematical procedures is fundamental to students' mathematical development.

The usual way to develop procedural fluency is to practise repetitive exercises, but is this the only effective way?

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Phonemic Awareness and Young Children. Asserts that regardless of the method used to teach reading , children first need a strong basis in phonemic awareness. Describes phonemic awareness , differentiates it from phonics, and presents available research findings. Advises on the development of phonemic awareness and creation of a classroom environment supportive of its development. Phonemic Awareness and the Teaching of Reading.

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Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy. To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters.

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