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World Scientific Publishing Co. H 9HE. All rights resewed. Florida and Robert A Datrymple Univ. Delaware Vol. Denmark Vol. Queensland Vol. Alaska and T S Murty lnsf. Ocean Science, BC Vol.

Hydroengineering, Polish Academy of Sciences Vol. New South Wales Vol. Miami Vol. Southern California , Harry Yeh Univ. Washington and Nobu Shut0 Tohoku Univ. Preface What can I say? This book is really not about facts and formulas. It is about learning and understanding. It is about diligence and care, about stewardship of a precious resource. It was essentially 32 years in the making. It was developed from lecture notes for an introductory course and its stated purpose is to bridge the gap between an eager student who knows nothing about coastal engineering and management, and the available literature.

My hope is that this book also finds its way on the bookshelves of the practitioners, as a handy reference to those first things we all need to know. This book distils things I learned from my professors, from reading, from interacting with colleagues, from practicing all over the world, from listening to stories, and from questions, comments and remarks of my students.

My students asked me to write this book - thats why its here. My thanks to all who inspired me. Without Queens University and its Civil Engineering Department, this book would not have become reality. I am also indebted to Delft University of Technology and Delft Hydraulics Laboratory who hosted me at the times that I needed to be away to write this book.

And I thank my wife, Nelly, who provided the space and support for me to do this. This book is about strategy, tactics and philosophy. It is not only about how we should design and manage, but also about design and management itself. It is also about enjoyment.

Coastal problems are very complex. They allow us to put. In the process, we rub shoulders with experts in each of these areas, and with biologists, chemists and environmentalists. We must also be familiar with the economic, legal and political frameworks, within which we practice. Because our art is young, we still approach our task with only a few rules. We have no coastal engineering design code. We have no precedents in our coastal management tasks.

That means challenge, thinking, innovation and unfortunately it may mean mistakes. I enjoy such a challenge, I hope you do. There is much to do. People still die because of natural disasters.

Much of the coastal work to date has been ill-conceived, ill-designed or poorly constructed and needs to be redone. We are faced with the largest migration of people in history. This migration has become a true invasion of the coast, putting tremendous pressure on a scarce natural resource.

We are dealing with a mega shift in priorities as we convert industrial areas, rail yards and loading docks of the previous era into residential and recreational settings. We are also asked to integrate. Projects must fit into systems. Physical coastal systems must fit into biological, environmental, legal and sociological systems.

Finally, we know so much in theory and at pilot scale, but the translation of this knowledge into prototype reality is so very difficult. The information in this book goes beyond the printed text.

I have provided a basic tool. The tool is incomplete. It only discusses some of the topics needed in our trade. There is much literature for you to expand into. Good luck on your further journey. Kingston, June I Description of Waves Wave Spectrum I Vertical Breakwaters Problem 1. Problem 2. Problem 3.

Problem 4. Lawrence Climate Problem 7. Problem 8. Problem 9. Problem Problem 1 1. Author Index Coastal Engineering and management are. They have a long history, leading to high sophistication in more developed areas of the world. Yet they are virtually non-existent in newly developing countries. Historically, humans have always wanted to protect themselves from flooding to the extent that their tools permitted.

Peoples living in the estuaries and deltas of the worlds rivers, in particular, faced difficult coastal management problems, as history of Middle Eastern civilizations shows.

They lived on land with little vertical relief that needed periodic flooding by the river water in order for the soil to remain fertile and for crops to grow. Yet major floods resulting from storm-generated, high water levels and waves threatened life and limb. Herein lies the contradiction that is the basis for our work. How can you live near the coast, take advantage of its great abundance and yet survive?

In the case of our ancestors: How could they encourage and experience minor floods, necessary for survival, while not being killed by major floods? Flooding and its consequences have been dealt with in many ingenious ways.

One common solution was to construct high areas to which the people could flee in case of flooding. Pliny in 47 A D already describes such Dutch ferps or mounds, of which eventually over were built. The construction of such safe areas was a major feat in coastal engineering, but imagine trying to prevent the waves from eroding such a safe area.

With no mechanical earth moving equipment, the physical size of such safe areas was small. Any erosion by floodwaters and waves of such a limited area would be dangerous. There was also no rock available in delta areas to serve as a hard perimeter protection around the outside of such a mound.

Simple methods of providing safe areas are still common in developing countries where scarce resources are channeled toward production of basic foodstuffs necessary for survival, rather than toward esoteric coastal protection structures.

Yet, in highly populated, low-lying deltas, such safe areas are often too small and too difficult to reach in time for large numbers of people, resulting in periodic disasters involving the drowning of hundreds or even thousands of people. More elaborate means are used in countries where greater economic resources are available for personal safety. Driving through the flat countryside there, it is still possible to see the old safe mounds. These usually have a church on it, which served as shelter and the only pointefixe in an otherwise endless area of wetland and water.

Further toward the sea, there are dikes, seawalls and revetments structures built parallel to shore , groins structures perpendicular to shore and immense masses of sand, artificially placed against the shore by large dredges to protect the hinterland by extensive beach-dune systems. Yet, in spite of such investments in coastal protection, the basic conflict remains.

As recently as , the sea won another battle in the war for control of the Dutch shore zone when a combination of waves, high tides and high water levels swept up by very strong winds storm surge created very extensive damage and cost lives. Another example of the precariousness of the coastal zone is the barrier island system along the East Coast of the United States and the Gulf of Mexico.

Some of these islands are only a meter or so above high water. The waves, winds and tides move the sand from the seaward side of the islands to the backside, eroding the seaside, accreting the backside and literally rolling those islands toward the mainland.

Even extensive coastal protection will not keep these islands in place.


Kamphuis Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Mangaement

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