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The crisis began in the United States and swept through most of the countries in the world particularly, through developed ones. The purpose of this paper is to present the causes of the crisis on such a huge scale and the effects that impressed on the entire world economy, both in the micro and macro perspective. The objective established requires an explanation of the basic concepts associated with the financial crisis.

Attaining these objectives influences the selection of analytical and descriptive research methods and sources of information. The analysis comprises the changes in balances on current and financial accounts and their components. The fall of a surplus on the current account was determined by a large drop of merchandise trade balance and other financial flows were factor destabilizing the balance on financial account. Most of the changes were visible only in the period of GDP and trade alterations are analysed.

The empirical analysis is proceeded with the comments on the state differences impact on their economies grouping. Thus, the origin of the division into developed, developing and transition states is examined. The empirical analysis proves that, first of all, the most advanced states suffered least during the last crisis. Secondly, fast economic growth of developing and transition economies of early st century results in diminishing differences in the state groups incomes.

Thirdly, there was a much more significant collapse of trade than GDP during the crisis. The European Union and the financial crisis in Greece. Unia Europejska a kryzys finansowy w Grecji. This paper suggests an approach for dealing with those issues, although this area clearly requires further work. In any case, it will help to prevent future overborrowing and sovereign debt crisis. The increase of EU countries sovereign debt is the pending scientific problem leading to the search of complex solutions needed for overcoming present sovereign debt crisis and restoring the trust of Euro as a currency of all European Union.

Research methods applied — analysis of scientific papers and statistical data. The aim of this article is to give an answer to the question if the anti-cyclical economic policy based on the Austrian theory is still valid in the 21st century.

The article consists of two parts: theoretical and empirical. The first part briefly describes the causes of economic fluctuations and the anti-cyclical economic policy based on the Austrian theory. An empirical analysis provides the following conclusions. Countries with little government intervention in the economy overcome the crisis faster than the states which interfere with the market; not overloaded public finance enhances economic growth in the long term; the anti-cyclical economic policy based on the Austrian theory primarily applies to the long term and system changes.

Hence, they are not fully appreciated among the economic policy makers. The aim of the paper is to analyze the effects of the global financial crisis on G20 international trade. The macroeconomic situation of G20 countries was presented in the section one. Then G20 international trade was analyzed, taking into consideration an annual variation of the commodity flows and the commodity structure of the G20 export and import.

The main conclusions of the paper are as follows: the global financial crisis affected all the G20 countries, mainly developed countries, emerging economies to a lesser extent, the effects of the crisis were revealed in an annual variation of the international trade value and the commodity structure of export and import by the SITC section.

The main objective of this paper is to analyze and assess the importance of the global governance mechanism in contemporary international relations. In the beginning, the paper defines and specifies the source of the concept of global governance. Then it presents global governance in the practice of contemporary international relations. The paper also determines the popularity of the concept of global governance and characterizes its shortcomings and weaknesses and describes the importance and role of soft law within the concept of multilateral international cooperation.

The study examines the concept of global governance from the perspective of the social sciences and law. It reviews Polish and foreign-language literature in this field. The study indicates that global governance is not the best method of solving contemporary international problems and that the current political and economic crisis may further reduce its effectiveness. This phenomenon has been accompanied by the trend of a relatively low economic activity of the developed economies deficit economies.

The return to the global balance is, therefore, conditioned through the increase of competitiveness of deficit economies, in particular the United States and Western Europe. Technological progress is measured by TFP. Getting rid of the production surplus through exports resulted in an increase in the production volume over time in order to supply foreign markets systematically.

Generated economic benefits inspired seeking for opportunities in the locations of specific comparative advantages in order to locate there parts of value-added chain.

Globalization, driven by trade liberalization and technological progress, has contributed to the expansion of international business, making transnational corporations the key beneficiaries of the policy of "openness", both coordinators of international trade and capital flows. The development of intra - industry trade, involving more and more countries with different levels of socio - economic development, promotes the formation of a new kind of vertical specialization within the emerging markets process level.

The aim of the article is to illustrate the influence of the logic of competition within global market of the 21st century on shaping the new image of the international division of labor. An interest in this subject usually increases during the economic crisis and the related protectionism. Economic systems, analyzed in the long run, are dynamic with features specific for each country. Each of them is shaped by the historical and cultural conditions as well as mentality of different societies.

The subject of interest of this paper is the economic system of Japan, and especially the state's role in shaping foreign economic policy. The author, while presenting the dominant historical and cultural conditions that influenced the importance of the state in the Japanese economic system, focuses on the role of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry METI. It demonstrates that privatization, liberalization, and other reforms that were aimed to withdraw the state from the market of goods and services were closely coupled with increasing numbers of regulatory institutions and the formalization of codes of conduct in corporations, public sector, and international institutions.

The article contrasts the prevalence of regulation with the problems that may require further or more effective regulation, the effects of which cross national borders. These problems are often themselves a side-effect of globalization and an increased mobility of goods, capital, and people. Thus, fulfilling regulatory policy objectives must be achieved by going beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

Entrepreneurs exploit new opportunities and stimulate the economic growth and development. The paper aims to present the concept of entrepreneurship from the European Union perspective focusing on the EU efforts made to create the business and legal environment conductive to entrepreneurs. EU official documents and publications were analyzed to demonstrate the role of entrepreneurship for the EU economy and recommendations for creating favourbale conditions for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs.

The paper views entrepreneurship in light of its selected theories and analyzes the EU dimension of entrepreneurship as well as entrepreneurial motivations and risks faced by SMEs. The main emphasis is put on strategic decisions in the area of economic and technological internationalization, knowledge economy and high technologies sectors creation and further modernization as well as creation of scientific and technological progress oriented networks of clusters.

High technology sectors development and clusterization oriented towards an increase of efficiency of various national and regional economies is a critical precondition for successful creation of the modern economy based on knowledge, both in the whole space of the European Union and particular countries.

It is explained that in the economies based on knowledge development of clusters and their networks will soon become one of the core forms of economic and technological advancement. The idea of international clusterization generally oriented towards creation and promotion of high technologies is given.

Understanding these factors allows us to consequently implement strategies of two types that could create the economies based on knowledge: these are the strategies oriented towards integration of the processes of economic, technological and social development along with the strategies oriented towards the syntesis of the results of the economic endeavours and technology advancement of different origins.

The promotion of the patterns based on the ideas of integration and synthesis is a core prerequisite for encouragement of innovations and improvement of technology transmition systems. Further research dedicated to the patterns mentioned above, is a promising trend of the science of economics as well as the science of management and administration directly connected to the needs for creation of knowledge based economies and internationalization processes in the European Union.

Accordingly, either they could have shared their privileged position, or waited until emerging economies shaped separate international organizations. The paper scrutinizes how a necessary adaptation to changing crisis circumstances influenced the choice of the agenda. The priorities of the EU external trade policy and its initiatives to multilateralise the world trade system, first and foremost within WTO were presented.

An analysis of the EU trade and its competitiveness was conducted by the comparing it to the United States, Japan and China, including the dynamics of trade, comparative advantages in merchandise and services trade as well as the current account balance. The changes that have taken place in merchandise exports and imports and in their structure are presented. The author has distinguished the most important factors influencing the trade flows: a state of the global economy, business conditions in the domestic markets of Japan and Korea, changes in the exchange rates, trade policies towards each other, as well as political relations between both countries.

The author concludes that despite the relatively rapid growth of the trade turnover, the intensity of trade between Japan and South Korea has declined.

This is one of the reasons why a free trade agreement between Korea and Japan has not been concluded yet. This situation is one of the major obstacles to the development of trade between the parties. To achieve the aim of the article, the author used a analytical and descriptive method. Economic relations between the two parties in the first decade of the 21st century have significantly developed, which is due to the common interests. Extremely topical and important for forward-looking global position of the European Union are Chinese competitive challenges, resulting from a dynamic development.

Aleksandra Stadnik. The area of particular interests is the sphere of human capital creation. The author focuses on the circumstances of its occurrence in Russia and Germany in the early 20s.

The first part of the article is an introduction. The last part of the article presents the conclusions. While we experience rising commodity prices, the author raises a question about the possible consequences of cutting the link between money and its equivalent expressed in gold in the late 70s. The evolution of the international monetary system towards a truly multipolar one, is among the scenarios of reforming the system.

The driving force behind the reform is the lack of stability of the system based on one currency and its role in creating global imbalances. Among currencies being able to substitute the USD in the international monetary system, renminbi RMB is gaining more and more in importance. What is wotrth noting is that Chinese authorities are especially active in promoting the process of internationalization of the currency, due to benefits of the internationalization process for the country. The aim of the article is to analyze the process of the internationalisation of the RMB and to answer the question of its influence on the Chinese as well as the global economy.

Contemporary financial crisis — causes and consequences for the world economy The global financial crisis which occurred in was one of the biggest crises that affected the world economy. A theoretical and political analysis in the Global World against a background of regional integration [pdf EN]. Plan Marshalla dla Grecji? Caused by imbalances over decades and enforced by the worldwide financial and economic slump , Greece has hopelessly run into public debt.

Kryzys w strefie euro — aktualna sytuacja i perspektywy This paper explores ideas for the implementation of systematic decisions of how to structure sovereign debt system in the EU and avoid future sovereign debt crisis. Is Austrian recipe for crisis still valid? The effects of global financial crisis on the G international trade.

The global financial crisis caused not only a decrease of the GDP in the world economy, but also a collapse in the international trade as well. Uwagi krytyczne [pdf PL]. The concept of global governance in the light of the political and economic crisis — critical remarks. This paper deals with the concept of global governance. International division of labor in the global economy of the 21st century.





Developing of transportation flows in 21 st century supply chains


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