Workplace bulling is a pervasive phenomenon with negative consequences for the health of victims and the productivity of organizations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and forms of workplace bullying among employees working at the public health-care sector of Cyprus using the Greek version of Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror LIPT instrument. Test—retest reliability expressed by Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0. LIPT instrument was distributed among employees working at the primary health-care setting and at the largest public hospital of Cyprus with response rate of Women comprised the majority of participants Mean age was
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Objective: The objective of this study was to examine reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Inventory of Violence and Psychological Harassment IVAPT Pando, , a item measure of psychological harassment at work and presence and intensity of psychological violence widely used in Latin American countries. Methods: The IVAPT was translated into Japanese, and the translation was amended through a small pretest and a back-translation and finalized.
Results: Cronbach's alpha of the scale was 0. An exploratory factor analysis showed that the first factor explained Data did not well fit to previously reported one- or three-factor structures. Psychological violence and harassment at work were more frequent among older respondents.
Intensity of psychological violence was well concordant with other scales of workplace bullying, i. While the first factor explained a large proportion of the variance, the IVAPT seems to have a unique factor structure in the Japanese sample.
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Vertex ; in Spanish. The objective of this study was to examine reliability and validity of the newly developed Japanese version of the IVAPT in the working population of Japan. In this study, we examined internal consistency reliability and factor-based validity of the Japanese version of the IVAPT. This instrument consists of 22 items with two sets of response options see Appendix. Second, respondents were asked to report the relative frequency of experiencing each item compared with their colleagues in the column B , using three response options: less than my colleagues 1 , same as my colleagues 2 , and more than my colleagues 3.
In addition, an additional final question asked whether the behaviors assessed have been produced by superiors, colleagues, or subordinates at work, which allows us to have reports of the directionality of the behaviors mobbing ascending, collateral, or descending. Previous studies showed that the IVAPT had an acceptable level of internal consistency Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.
The instructions, items and response options of the IVAPT were first translated from the English version into Japanese by a professional translator. Then we tested this first translated version with a group of nine occupational health staff occupational physicians, occupational health nurses, and clinical psychologists in Japan to receive their feedback, and revised the translation accordingly. Then we back-translated the revised version into Spanish, which was then reviewed by the original author and also discussed for further refinement between Japanese and Mexican authors.
Those classified as high or medium were considered to be experiencing psychological harassment at work. For interpretation, the presence of psychological violence at work was defined based on conflict situations at work that, when not resolved, can be habitual behavior.
The intensity of psychological violence at work was defined based on situations with sustained generic violence at work that can be received by all workers at a workplace. The Negative Acts Questionnaire: development, validation and revision of a measure of bullying at work. Demographic variables, such as sex, age, occupation, and duration of employment, were also asked in the questionnaire.
Average responses for column A responses frequency and column B responses more than the colleagues were calculated for the total sample.
Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency reliability was calculated for column A responses and column B responses for the total sample, men and women. The column A responses were subjected to a factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation.
A total of 1, respondents men and women out of 2, initial respondents filled in all questions including sex, age, and the IVAPT. The average standard deviation, SD age of workers was Men accounted for The average duration SD of employment was Respondents included managers, nonmanual workers clerks , manual workers food service, garbage collection, etc. A total of 1, were full-time workers, 46 were part-time workers, and 17 were employed for a temporary job.
The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of internal consistency reliability for responses concerning the frequency in column A were 0.
The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for responses concerning experiencing more than one's colleagues were 0. In an exploratory factor analysis, eigenvalues and the total variance explained were The prevalence of psychological harassment at work based on the IVAPT definition medium or high was 5. The Japanese version of the IVAPT showed high internal consistency reliability according to Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total sample and for both sexes.
This finding is consistent with previous studies that also showed high internal consistency of the IVAPT 0. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the first factor explained a large proportion of the variance The prevalence of presence medium or high of psychological violence was The prevalence of intense medium or high of psychological violence was 8. The prevalence medium or high of psychological harassment at work was 5.
In this study, there was no significant difference among sex in any of these prevalences, which is similar to previous results of Aldrete et al. A gender issue? El acoso moral en el trabajo. Distinguir lo verdadero de lo falso [Bullying at work. Distinguish the true from the false]. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles ; 2: in French. This is almost consistent with previous studies using these three instruments. Both LIPT and NAQ-R may be sensitive for measurement of psychological violence, since when psychological violence becomes severe, it would increase the risk of psychological harassment at work as well.
But the LIPT may be less sensitive for measurement of psychological harassment at work. These findings could be useful in classifying existing scales of psychological harassment at work and comparison of findings based on different scales. Several limitations should be noted. First, the response rate was not high. Also, there were many respondents who failed to fill in column B.
The results may be biased toward those who were willing to report their experience of psychological violence and harassment at work.
Second, the sample was from civil servants, particularly from nonmanual workers. The results may reflect more characteristics of the sample. A replication study is needed among blue-collar workers and in private sectors. While we used the original criteria to define psychological violence and harassment at work based on the IVAPT, the cut-off may vary from country to country.
Also, while it sounds reasonable to differentiate psychological violence and psychological harassment at work based on the IVAPT, evidence for the classification is still not available in Japan.
A further study should be conducted to rationalize the classification by, for example, comparing psychological impacts of psychological violence, and psychological harassment at work. Even with these limitations, the present study has shown that the Japanese version of the IVAPT is a reliable and valid instrument for measurement of psychological violence and harassment at work.
The instrument could be useful in international comparison studies of psychological violence and harassment at work between Latin American countries and Japan, as well as other countries, and in studies intending to differentiate psychological violence and harassment at work. Already have an account? Login in here. Journal of Occupational Health. Journal home Journal issue Featured articles About the journal.
Browse "Advance Publication" version. References Table 1. I receive attacks on my reputation. They have tried to humiliate me or to make a fool of me in public. I receive mockery, slander or public defamation.
Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror (LIPT)