Book of the Consulate of the Sea , Catalan Llibre del Consolat de Mar , a celebrated collection of Mediterranean maritime customs and ordinances in the Catalan language , published in The title is derived from the commercial judges of the maritime cities on the Mediterranean coast, who were known as consuls. The book contains a code of procedure issued by the kings of Aragon for the guidance of the consular courts, as well as a collection of ancient customs of the sea. Also included is a body of ordinances for the regulation of warships.

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Consolat de Mar

The term may also refer to a celebrated collection of maritime customs and ordinances in Catalan language , also known in English as The Customs of the Sea , compiled over the 14th and 15th centuries and published at Valencia in or before In the 21st century, the Catalan term Consolat de mar is today used for a commercial arbitration service operated by the Barcelona Chamber of Commerce , and also for a series of trade-promotion offices operated by the city of Barcelona. Mercantile Law ius mercadorium was becoming established at the same time through much of Europe, and similar bodies had already been established in Messina first third of the 13th century and Genoa As the territories of the Crown of Aragon expanded, it was customary to establish new Consulates of the Sea in the major ports. One of the earliest was in Valencia , where the charter of Peter III of Aragon makes it clear that disputes are to be settled "according to maritime customs, as these are accepted in Barcelona. The earliest extant printed edition of the work Barcelona, is without a title-page or frontispiece, but it is described by the above-mentioned title in the epistle dedicatory prefixed to the table of contents. According to a statement made by Capmany in his Codigo de los costumbras maritimas de Barcelona , published at Madrid in , there was extant to his knowledge an older edition, printed in semi-Gothic characters, which he believed to be of a date prior to


Consulate of the Sea

Also note that the consuls of Barcelona had no independence assigned later on in the Book of the Consulate of the Sea. Customs collected in the book would be in part coming from a Barcelona origin, but many would have been created and consolidated in Valencia, from which have been copied to the subsequently created consulates. According to Arcadi Garcia Sanz, the main difference between the consulates of Barcelona and Valencia would be the fact that the latter had from the start a "royal jurisdiction", and therefore has influenced so strongly in the other consulates in the fifteenth century. He assumes that it was handwritten in Barcelona, but between and , disagreeing on this point with Capmany. Later, Wildscut, considering that the original compilation makes no reference to the Bills of exchange , he concludes that this Catalan document must predate the first half of the 13th century.



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Book of the Consulate of the Sea

The Book of the Consulate of the Sea or Book of the Consulate of Sea is a compendium of maritime law that governed trade in the Mediterranean for centuries. Of Aragonese origin, it was translated into many languages and served as the basis for current international maritime law. When setting the first Consulate of the Sea in Valencia, king Peter III of Aragon decided to apply the maritime customs of Barcelona, called costums de mar , which had not yet been codified, although there did already exist in Barcelona another compilation of maritime rules, called Ordinacions de Ribera , which established norms for policing harbours and coastal waters. The merit of the Book of the Consulate of the Sea is that it is the first work to collect the scattered laws and customs of Roman, Greek, Byzantine, Rhodian, Italian, French and Spanish maritime rights. Until the publication of the Ordonnance de la Marine in France in , [3] the Book of the Consulate of the Sea was the code of maritime law in force throughout the Mediterranean. In Spain it continued in use until the introduction of the Spanish Commercial Code.

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