Underwater Wireless Communication Seminar and PPT with pdf report : Underwater wireless communication is a prosperous research area in the field of wireless communication, wireless is a term used to explain the telecommunication in which the electromagnetic waves carry the signal in the communication path. The signals that are used to carry digital data via underwater channel are the acoustic waves because they can spread over long distances and the radio signals as electromagnetic waves are not used because they spread over short distances. From the past many decades, cabled submersibles were used to discover the titanic and hydrothermal vents, cabled submersibles played a major role in the underwater communication and to overcome the problems in those, the underwater wireless communication came into existence. The necessity of Underwater Wireless Communication:.
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Underwater wireless communication networks UWCNs include sensors and autonomous underwater vehicles AUVs that interact to perform specific applications such as underwater monitoring. Coordination and information sharing between sensors and AUVs make the provision of security challenging.
The unique characteristics of the underwater acoustic channel and the differences between such networks and their ground based counterparts require the development of efficient and reliable security mechanisms. The aquatic environment is particularly vulnerable to malicious attacks due to the high bit error rates, large and variable propagation delay, low bandwidth of acoustic channels in water.
Achieving reliable inter vehicle and sensor-AUV communication is especially difficult due to the mobility of AUVs and the movement of sensors with water currents. The above mentioned characteristics of UWCNs have several security issues associated like packet errors, eavesdropping, modification of packets, and many more.
Also since power consumption in underwater communications is higher than in terrestrial radio communications energy exhaustion attacks can reduce network life. Defences for these are discussed. Jamming can be overcome by Spread Spectrum techniques, Wormhole detection is done with a visual modelling using Dis-VoW and other attacks can be countered by authentication, verification, and positioning. Open research challenges for secure localization, routing and time synchronization are mentioned.
In this paper UWCNs is discussed, with emphasis on the possible attacks, countermeasures and further opportunities and scope for development in this direction to improve security of such networks. Underwater wireless communication networks UWCNs consist of sensors and autonomous underwater vehicles AUVs that interact, coordinate and share information with each other to carry out sensing and monitoring functions.
A pictorial representation is shown below:. In last several years, underwater communication network UWCN has found an increasing use in a widespread range of applications, such as coastal surveillance systems, environmental research, autonomous underwater vehicle AUV operation, oil-rig maintenance, collection of data for water monitoring, linking submarines to land, to name a few.
By deploying a distributed and scalable sensor network in a 3-dimensional underwater space, each underwater sensor can monitor and detect environmental parameters and events locally. Hence, compared with remote sensing, UWCNs provide a better sensing and surveillance technology to acquire better data to understand the spatial and temporal complexities of underwater environments. Present underwater communication systems involve the transmission of information in the form of sound, electromagnetic EM , or optical waves.
Each of these techniques has advantages and limitations. These types of networks have their unique communication requirements. Among the three types of waves, acoustic waves are used as the primary carrier for underwater wireless communication systems due to the relatively low absorption in underwater environments.
This is essential in military and safety-critical applications of UWCNs. It needs to be guaranteed in critical applications such as maritime surveillance. Many underwater sensor applications for environmental preservation, such as water quality monitoring, rely on the integrity of information.
Availability: The data should be available when needed by an authorized user. Lack of availability due to denial-of-service attacks would especially affect time-critical aquatic exploration applications such as prediction of seaquakes. Jamming is deliberate interference with radio reception to deny the target's use of a communication channel. For single-frequency networks, it is simple and effective, rendering the jammed node unable to communicate or coordinate with others in the network.
A jamming attack consists of interfering with the physical channel by putting up carriers on the frequencies used by nodes to communicate. Since it requires a lot of energy, attackers usually attack in sporadic bursts.
Since underwater acoustic frequency bands are narrow from a few to hundreds of kilohertz , UWCNs are vulnerable to narrowband jamming. Localization is affected by the replay attack when the attacker jams the communication between a sender and a receiver, and later replays the same message with stale information an incorrect reference posing as the sender. In frequency hopping, a device transmits a signal on a frequency for a short period of time, changes to a different frequency and repeats.
The transmitter and receiver must be coordinated. Direct-sequence spreads the signal over a wide band, using a pseudo-random bit stream. A receiver must know the spreading code to distinguish the signal from noise. Frequency-hopping schemes are somewhat resistant to interference from an attacker who does not know the hopping sequence. However, the attacker may be able to jam a wide band of the spectrum, or even follow the hopping sequence by scanning for the next transmission and quickly tuning the transmitter.
Wang, J. Kong, B. Bhargava and M. Are you interested in this topic. Then mail to us immediately to get the full report.
Underwater Wireless Communication Seminar ppt and pdf Report
Underwater wireless communication networks UWCNs include sensors and autonomous underwater vehicles AUVs that interact to perform specific applications such as underwater monitoring. Coordination and information sharing between sensors and AUVs make the provision of security challenging. The unique characteristics of the underwater acoustic channel and the differences between such networks and their ground based counterparts require the development of efficient and reliable security mechanisms. The aquatic environment is particularly vulnerable to malicious attacks due to the high bit error rates, large and variable propagation delay, low bandwidth of acoustic channels in water.
Underwater wireless communication is a flourishing research area in the field of wireless communications. This paper presents the overall framework of the necessity of underwater wireless systems, characteristics of an acoustic channel, hardware and working of acoustic modems, sensor networks and different communication architectures involved in the sensor networks. Applications till date, like oceanographic data collection,AUVs autonomous underwater vehicles ,underwater radio etc.. While wireless communication technology today has become part of our daily life, the idea of wireless undersea communications may still seem far-fetched. However, research has been active for over a decade on designing the methods for wireless information transmission underwater. Human knowledge and understanding of the world?